Category: Shell

Create favicon.ico on Linux in 2 links

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By , August 14, 2011 19:24

1. Tutorial Image editing:

U can create the image as .png with the Gimp Software, here the tutorial:

Drupal interface did not like the.ico format directly saved from GImp, did not appear so I have saved a .png in Gimp and converted …

2. Post Image converting:

Post about converting .png to .ico with the Terminal on Linux:

Designers: Dont Panic !

If the lines of code make bleed your eyes, but you still want to work with Open Source Software … work with Linux developer or

get Ubuntu Studio optimized for Graphic Design, then all the tools are already include into your Operative System.

In the case you have all the tools:

you ´ll need to go into the directory where you have the png

$ cd Documents/design/logo/

and use just the last line from the article

$ icotool -o favicon.ico -c favicon.png

Shell Basics Workshop Report n. 3/3 Juli 2010

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By , July 27, 2010 03:24

>> nerdcafe Vetomat 26.7.2010        snufu/fuzzy speach, Zbog report

$ ncal -w

calendar for the current week (it shows the all month)

$ red

open a (strange) text editor in the terminal to go out: q + enter

$ mcedit filename

the famous midnight-command editor (apt-get install mc)

$ mc

clone of an oldschool filemanager


$ tput

initialize a terminal

$ reset

query terminfo database
(clear the complete terminal window)


$ cp "source" "destination"

copy files in directory (is an automatic paste)

$ mkdir "name"

make directory “name”

$ ls -l

list all the files and folders in the directory

(-l)     use a long listing format
as the details mode in a location window

$ ls -l "directory-name"

is giving the list of the called directory

$ pwd

Print Working Directory
shows the actual folder content

$ cd ..

go one level up

$ if cd /somewhere; then date;

Only if there is cd folder called like so then show the date

$ echo mario > test/.secret

with the point on the new name it will create a hidden file that is  normally not shown in the interface and  in the command ls

$ ls -a

to recall a hidden file in a list  -a

$ echo /.*

will call also all the hidden files


it represents the current directory


it represents the parent directory

$ rm filename

remove file

$ rm /dir/

remove folder

$ rm -r foldername

empty the directory    (delete the files but keep the folder)

$ set -x
$ set +x

start the behavior session
the commmand string is printed on screen before the execution

the command string session will not show anymore the command screen

$ echo foo | cat

“pipe echo foo into cat” write the info foo into the file and show the content (cat)
the 2 commands are connected to eatch other and have the same content

Report of Linux-works shell meeting in Vetomat 26.Juli.2010

Shell Basics Workshop Report n. 2/3 Juli 2010

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By , July 20, 2010 03:24

>> nerdcafe Vetomat 19.7.2010        snufu/fuzzy speach, Zbog report

$ nmap

scan the local subnet to check for available hosts – nmap returns all IPs of running machines in the specified subnet. scans IPs 1-100.

(you ll need to apt-get install nmap)

$ uptime

Shows when the pc started; how many users; load average; how many processes are running

$ date

gives you back a date and time

$ ncal

to call the calendar


Comment sign
to insert a not exacutable text, frequently used for human comunication instead of the normal typing in the terminal that is readed by default as a command to the computer


is a jolly to ask for existing files/Directory for example

$ echo D*

Desktop Dokumente…
(every file with the D as first letter in the directory where we are located)

$ fsdsf?

if you dont remember the last letter of a data
for example fsdfz
the command returns the possible files you are searching
like the asterisc but applies only on the last letter in doubt


the dollar $ itself
means a variable


the pipeline | between commands is to add multiple commands without writing multiple lines in the terminal


are to consider the string as text

$ rm filename

removes files – take care there is no restore the file will be deleted!

$ clear

clean the monitor terminal from previous output lines

$ iwlist wlan0 scan

scan for avalaible networks with network interface wlan0 (the 1. wlan card,usually)

$ ps

programs running by everybody

$ ps aux

more info about the running programs

$ ps aux | less

pipe the processes output into “less” – just for easy reading


to redirect and copy the command output to another program


attach the output left of >> to the end of the file right off >>
for example

$ echo hiho > foobar
$ cat echo >> foobar

will give as output



(escape) to take out special meaning and read the value as text
example echo “mb\”r*” gives the output

true is 0
and frequently in programming it is the opposite: true is 1 !!

$ wc

words count

$ wc -l

wordcount –lines

Report of Linux-works shell meeting in Vetomat 19.Juli.2010

Shell Basics Workshop Report n. 1/3 Juli 2010

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By , July 15, 2010 03:20

>> nerdcafe Vetomat 12.7.2010        snufu/fuzzy speach, TKilla report

LinuxWorks workshop about Linux usage of the terminal.

Weekly appointment every Monday in Vetomat at 19:00. Scharnweberstrasse 35, F’hain, Berlin.

the “shell” is the program in the terminal,
–> Application –>Accessories —>Terminal
where you can run all the commands installed on the system
(the shell is called “bash” or “sh” or similar)

>> nerdcafe Vetomat 12.7.2010        snufu/fuzzy speach;  Tk report

all lines in this text starting with $ can be executed in a terminal
watch the output of the commands!!  (almost) every error is written there!

useful commands:
Its enough to write few letters and use TAB key — multiple times —
to autocomplete the command!!

arrow-up key     – goes back to the previous command
ctrl+r command    – search in command history

the format of the command is always:

commandname parameter1 parameter2 ..
programname -h          or
programname –help  for a long version

gives a short help and possible parameters of the command

$ man programname

manual of the program – RTFM – read this to know what it does 😉

$ apropos burn cd

tells which programs are doind the task

$ ssh user@hostname

login to another computer by console

$ screen -x

join a shared session (on another computer)
must be connected before to (ssh username@hostname)
screen runs multiple terminals (on a remote system) and you can switch between them

screen commands:
ctrl+a    a    – switch to another terminal
ctrl+a  ESC      – scroll with cursor keys

$ ls

list content of current directoy

$ ls -a

list –all: shows also hidden “.” dot-files (config files mostly)

$ less

shows 1 PAGE of output of a command  (contrast to “more” – that shows more 🙂 )

$ echo hiho > foobar

write hiho into the variable “foobar”

$ cat myman</pre>
<pre>$ tom

outputs the name of the var

$ cd /
"change dir" to root-dir "/"
"/" is the whole system - including all discs/partitions

$ cd    or  cd ~

“change dir” to your home dir “/home/yourusername/”,

$ echo foo > file1

write “foo” into a textfile file1

$ cat file1

print output of file1

$ head

show first lines of file

$ head -n 50

show first 50 lines of file

pipe command “>”

$ iwconfig > file1

write _standard_ output to file1

$ iwconfig > file1

write _serror_ output to file1 – “2” is the code for error outputs

$ echo ritual > fileX

add lines to file

$ echo ritual2 >> fileX
$ echo ritual3 >> fileX

connect terminal to remote window system

$ ssh username@hostname

connect to another computer and executes commands there

$ ssh -X username@hostname

activate X11 windowing forward on other computer

$ username@hostname: firefox

starts for example firefox on the remote machine and shows it on your screen

$ mv    file1 newfile

move file1 to another

$ less filename

show content of a text file

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